Item ID is plotted against order date, colored by return rate. In this section, we will describe examples of visualization being used in the process of analyzing big data sets, from our own work and examples from published work. What we learn from plots is different from that of modeling and prediction. There are likely many facets to the data. It is important to note that exploring big data visually is typically generating, not testing, hypotheses.
In , the emphasis was on mathematics. This data is big because there is a lot of information collected in addition to the test scores. In the student table there are records for about , students from 65 different countries, and variables.
The variables include information about gender, language, household possessions, attitude to math, use of the internet, many different aspects of their lives. The parent table has variables from , parent-completed surveys providing information about the students households, such as if both parents are in the home or if its a foster home, parents occupations, how the child's school was selected.
The school table contains survey results completed by 18, school principals producing variables. These items include information about numbers of teachers, supply shortages, teacher turnover, educational background of teachers, streaming of classes. There are many different questions that we might try to answer with this data. After the magnitude of the data was determined, by making quick counts of each of the tables provided, and examining the data dictionaries, our group hashed out possible questions and expectations of what associations we might see in the data.
One issue that we were interested in was about the gender gap between boys and girls in math. We hear about this in the media frequently, and we were interested to see if evidence of the gap was present in this multinational test data.
To examine this question we calculated the difference between the mean math test scores for boys and girls in each of the countries, and plotted it. Sample weights were utilized in calculating the averages. The absence of a universal math gap runs counter to the popular press. This data represents an observational study, and so it can only inform us about association. To understand some potential reasons why the gap does not exist should involve additional investigations into the samples used in each country.
One quick check reveals that it cannot be explained by differing proportions of boys and girls being tested: these are roughly the same in all countries, so the math gap in favor of girls in some countries is not due to just a few top girls being tested. This data is abounding with information ripe for exploration. We can learn about many associations between demographic factors and educational achievement about countries across the globe. These could be mined to form the basis for follow-up experimental studies. Visualization provides an excellent way to mine these associations, across the different categorical levels.
Dotplots of mean difference shown by country, along with maps. Color roughly indicates magnitude of the gap, blue more than 5 points in favor of boys, green within 5 points, and pink more than 5 points in favor of girls. Surprisingly, this data indicates that the gender gap in math is not universal, many countries do not have a gaps, and a few countries show a gap in favor of girls. On the other hand, the reading gap is universally in favor of girls in all of the countries in this study. On an individual scale, the small plots show the top boys blue and girls pink score in a few countries, the story is different.
Even in countries with a big gender gap in math, e. Similarly, for reading, individual boys top the reading score in many countries. One glaringly obvious deficiency in the data from the maps, is the lack of information from the continent of Africa. Percentage difference by time of poll release.
Color represents pollster, gray strip shows poll average and the large blue dot indicates final election margin. To obtain his accurate prediction of the election outcomes, he aggregated polls from different sources, but an important component was to adjust and weight the polls from different pollsters. Each dot represents one poll result, and color indicates pollster. There is a lot of variation in polls, even when conducted in very similar time frames. The variation in results can be as high as 10 percentage points. Differences between polls produced by different pollsters can be seen.
DailyKos light blue is consistently higher than the trend, and consistently produced the most pro-Obama results. Rasmussen pink tended to be fairly close to the trend or below it pro-McCain. Hotline yellow was varied early on in the season but closer to election day was near the average of all other polls. Gallup orange is noticeably varied, it has some of the most pro-McCain results as well as the most pro-Obama results.
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Gallup is a legacy American pollster who dates back to the early s, and we would have expected that they would be providing more reliable polling numbers than observed. The plot of the national trend polls allows us to see the variability and the bias' of polling organizations. The pollster DailyKos, also known as Research , is a community action organization with political leanings towards to Democratic party.
Rasmussen on the other hand has a reputation of leaning to the right, and currently has a large adjustment value to correct this on Hotline is fairly neutral. Left Percentage difference by state, top to bottom ordered by McCain to Obama advantage.
Color indicates final election result. Black is the median of all polls, grey is the median of the previous week's polls, and white shows all polls. Right Block cartograms, size of state represents electoral votes, colored by the most favorable poll result for each candidate, just prior to election day, in each state. In the best case scenario for McCain, the country still looks predominantly blue. Each state is assigned a number of electoral votes, roughly based on the size of the population.
For example, in Iowa was worth 7 votes, whereas New York was worth A candidate needs to tally up or more points of the possible , hence Nate Silver's web site name to win the presidency. State, top to bottom most support for McCain to most support for Obama, is plotted against percentage difference. States in these position tend to have a lot of pollsters operating, so there are more white dots visible, and for the most part it can be seen that the final result closely matched the poll results.
There are a couple of exceptions: Montana was predicting to be a toss-up but ended up being more for McCain than expected, and Iowa ended up closer than the latest polls predicted. During the election cycle, we produced these plots and animated them from the previous week, which allowed obtaining a sense of temporal shifts in attitude, and the variability leading up to the actual vote.
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And the site is expanded to an independent news site and is an exemplary location to browse to read examples of numerically and visually analyzing large data du jour. This is a large dataset: there are nearly million records in total, and takes up 1. There were 9 entries, four of which won prizes, and are described in short articles.
reireidomenexs.ga at master · dicook/reireidomenexs.ga · GitHub
This was a lot of data displayed very succinctly, providing key details of flight delays. Maps of origin to destination show which carriers operate on a hub system and which don't. Facetted scatterplots with overlaid loess fits show trends in delays by carrier. These gaps correspond to ghost flights, planes that fly passengerless, in order to get a vehicle into a location that it is needed. It represents inefficiency in operations.
Most carriers have been reducing this costly operation, but Northwest airlines had an increase in the latter few years of this data. Delta, which merged with Northwest in , saw improvement in efficiency.
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Stringing delays together with weather patterns revealed the problems that strong cross-winds cause at airports. Only the top 50 airports based on delay are shown. Over this time period EWR Newark, NJ had the worst record in delays even though their traffic volume was not large compared to other airports. Fuel consumption vertical is plotted against distance flown horizontal in the scatterplot, and bar charts show carrier, and year.
American Airlines is at the top of the pack: big carrier, big consumer. Over this period of time, Delta is relatively inefficient, having relatively higher fuel consumption for the same distance flown. In recent years, which can't be seen in this data, they have improved substantially. Southwest is a big carrier but has substantially more efficient fuel consumption than their competitors.
Delays aggregated in 15 minute bin widths. Arrival delay is calculated from the difference between the reported actual and scheduled departures. Arrival delays of hours would be a plane that left a day early, which we would expect is impossible. Because it is a primary example of mass editing, the flow of edits is potentially interesting. The book chapter describes the process of pulling the data, pre-processing and making visualizations of different aspects.
From Data Chaos to the Visualization Cosmos
Their endeavor began in , early days for the encyclopedia. The edits data is huge. To tackle is Wattenberg and Viega, initially created an interactive visualization for single pages. Stripes are colored by author, so individual contributions to pages can be tracked. Anonymous editors are grey.
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The overall height of the plot indicates the length of the article.